Sustainability: All That Matters

In my new book, published this week by Hodder in the UK, I put forward a idiosyncratic view:  I suggest that we are wrong to conflate sustainability and the living of an ethical life. Sustainability is essentially a problem of engineering. Can we build an economy that allows all 9 billion people in 2050 to live with approximately the same standard of living as the richest 1 billion of today? I think the answer to this question is unambiguously ‘yes’, but with one important caveat to which I will return.

An ethical life – perhaps one which rejects standard Western norms of high levels of consumption of material goods – is a set of rules we may as individuals wish to follow. But such a lifestyle is very little to do with sustainability. If global society manages to achieve sustainability I suggest it will not come from millions of people living better lives (which we all ought to do anyway) but from using science and economic growth to help us dramatically reduce the impact we have on the planet’s operations.

The crucial finding in the book – and one which I was very surprised to come across – was that the earth’s crust is very  likely  to contain enough minerals to provide the world of 2050 with all that it needs. With reasonable care, we won’t run out of anything important. Some metals will get quite scarce, but humankind will simply switch to reasonable alternatives. There are few materials that cannot be substituted quite easily by others. Even rare earths are abundant and distributed across the globe. It is simply that only China is mining them at the moment (partly because of the highly polluting nature of some extraction techniques). If we build a proper recycling and reuse infrastructure – ‘the circular economy – we can expect to be able to manage quite well.

Another finding which I didn’t expect is that there is quite strong evidence that wealthy human societies reach a peak in their consumption of material resources. Perhaps the best way of putting it is that we need a stock of important metals, of which steel is the best example, and once attained, our needs fall sharply. In the case of steel, even the richest countries require about 10 tonnes per person and no more. So we don’t need ever increasing amounts of metals or other materials to live an increasingly prosperous life. There is a natural limit on human material requirements. We really  don’t have infinite needs.

I know this is a contentious view which is rejected by almost everybody working in the field of sustainability. I’m suggesting that economic growth is perfectly compatible with sustainability. In fact I go further, saying that the improvements in science that come with GDP growth will enable us to face the challenges of sustainability more effectively. Once we have reached a certain standard of living, more economic growth doesn’t result in us using more natural resources. We may even require less. Growth is good, I tentatively hypothesise.

What about the stresses and strains put upon the earth’s natural systems by thoughtless human exploitation? Aren’t we likely to disrupt vital but little understood ecologies by, for example, our horrifying indifference to falling biodiversity? Perhaps with slightly more confidence than warranted, I say  no, the loss of biodiversity  is a tragedy and an ethical disaster but is not likely to affect mankind’s ‘sustainability’.

There’s one important exception to my optimism. Climate change seems to me to represent a threat to human life. Market mechanisms and good sense may enable us to live reasonable lives in 2050 were it not the threat from increased temperatures, rising sea levels and magnification of weather extremes. I conclude that reducing the rate of increase in global concentrations of greenhouse gases is the only really difficult challenge posed by the requirement for sustainability. Everything else I think we can deal with.

In the space allowed by the publisher I could only write a short book. I couldn’t include much of the numerical analysis my thesis really requires. And so perhaps I won’t convince anyone that we need to separate out the really good reasons to live simpler and less material lives from very different challenge of using advances in science and technology to enable us to reduce our impact on the planet. And I won’t make any friends by  emphasising that many things we regards as ‘natural’, such as cotton, are actually far more destructive of the world’s sustainability than manufactured alternatives such as polyester. Unfortunately perhaps, a sustainable world is a less natural one than one we might ideally want. But as writers such as Stewart Brand and Mark Lynas have pointed out, this is Anthropocene and humankind has to engineer itself out of its problems.

  1. Martin McBrien’s avatar

    For more details on the carbon emissions of material production and how this will develop in the future, Sustainable Materials: With Both Eyes Open is a good reference (available as a free pdf from as well as from Amazon).

    Very simply, it shows that we cannot meet carbon targets while the entire world reaches western levels of material consumption, even if all known process efficiency measures are implemented.

    The solution is to use materials more efficiently to provide the same services; lighter weight designs (without increasing yield losses in production), using products for longer and more intensely, and reuse without melting. There is a good mix of engineering and consumer behaviour solutions within these strategies.

  2. Chris Goodall’s avatar

    Thank you for the comment, Martin.

    My short book on Sustainability uses some of the key ideas in Sustainable Materials: With Both Eyes Open. I hope I’ve properly acknowledged the detailed and compelling work on this topic in the Cambridge Engineering department.

    Chris Goodall.

  3. Roddy Campbell’s avatar

    Is that’s the precis, I’m buying the book!

    I’m surprised you were surprised by the two key findings you mentioned, but there we go! :)

    I found this a rather elegant description of the chimaera of finite resources, he writes well on reserves/resouces etc:

  4. Mike’s avatar

    Does your book discuss sustainability in terms of the second law of thermodynamics, kinetics and the supply of net energy?

    I realise these topics are unlikely to make the dust cover!

  5. Chris Goodall’s avatar


    Not sure if I have covered all of these. But I do look at the energy delivery from the sun, the efficiency of photosynthesis and the amount of ‘net primary production’, particularly in relation to food supply and land use. And of course humankind’s need for non-carbon energy.

    No direct mention of laws of thermodynamics, if I remember correctly.


  6. Mike’s avatar


    Thanks for the reply. Not sure, though.

    Perhaps I’d better buy your book. After all, I cannot criticise something I haven’t read!!


  7. Penninckx’s avatar

    Hi Chris,

    Can you tell me if your book talks about the nation and locally-wide solutions ?

    Thanks in advance.


  8. Chris Goodall’s avatar

    Hi Audrey,

    Thanks for writing.

    No, my book tries to show that most concerns about sustainability are perhaps mistaken. My suggestions about solutions to energy and climate change issues, which I think are very severe, are contained in my three previous books. Specifically, ‘Ten Technologies to Fix Energy and Climate’ looks at the best ways of reducing carbon emissions around the world.

    With best wishes,



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